There is a popular saying that the first impression is the last impression. The meaning of the proverb is that when we meet a person for the first time, we can make the correct and lasting impression of the person. Such a judgment may not be fully accurate but experiments and studies prove that the quality of such judgments is not inferior to the judgments based on prolonged experience and logical deductions. Experts have given various names to the mysterious phenomenon of making the first impression like snap judgment, thin slicing, the sixth sense, second mind, blink or even ‘thinking without thinking’.
The mystery of the first impression is as old as ages. Dale Carnegie in his international bestseller book “How to win friends and influence people” states that a genuine smile is the best way to make the best first impression as smile says: “I like you. You make me happy. I am glad to see you”. In fact smile is considered so important to sell products that a Chinese proverb says: “A man without a smiling face must not open a shop”.
However, if just by bearing a smile you can sell your product, every salesman would have been a millionaire. The difficulty with a salesman is that howsoever hard he may try he cannot fake a smile. People somehow immediately come to know if the smile is genuine or fake. Therefore, Carnegie warns:
“An insincere grin? No. That doesn’t fool anybody. We know it is mechanical and we resent it. I am talking about the real smile, a heartwarming smile, a smile that comes from within, the kind of smile that will bring a good price in the marketplace.”
We all know from our experience that the face of a person can tell us his total personality. It is well known that ‘face is the mirror of heart’. Yet what surprises the scientists is how the face can pass as much information about a person within a fraction of seconds which a psychologist would take months to gather and process.
This article discusses the scientific studies conducted by psychologists, which firmly establish the importance and accuracy of the snap judgment. It then investigates different scientific explanations given for the snap judgments. Finally, it unfolds the mystery of the first impression by applications of the principles of the Aatmic Science (Science of Soul).
Studies that Do Not Make Sense
Scientists have their strange way of discovering the truth. It is like a judicial trial. Even if an offence is committed before the eyes of thousands of people and every one knows the truth (including the judge), yet the process of law has to be followed and the trial proceedings have to be gone through. The ultimate judgment shall be based on the strength of material evidences produced before the court by the investigating authorities. The same is true for science that relies on material evidences and hard data even if we know the truth from our own experiences and firmly believe in it. Therefore, though the wisdom of the first impression or snap judgment is age old, experiments are needed to prove that the first impression is really the last impression (and sometime even better). Such experiments have been conducted only recently. Some of the important experiments proving the importance of the first impression are as following:
(a) Face is the Mirror of Heart
In a recent research conducted at Princeton University, it has been observed that when we see a new face, we are able to know whether a person is attractive and trustworthy within the tenth of a second. Princeton University psychologist, Alex Todorov has found that people respond intuitively to faces so rapidly that our reasoning minds may not have time to influence the reaction…..and that our intuitions about attraction and trust are among those we form the fastest .
In the current study, the researchers asked observers to look at 66 different faces for one of three time durations: either 100 milliseconds, 500 milliseconds or a full second. After each face flashed on the screen and vanished, the observers marked whether they found the face to be trustworthy or not, and also how confident they were in their analysis. Other experiments conducted in similar fashion tested different specific traits, such as likeability and competence. The research concluded that if given more time, people`s fundamental judgment about faces did not change but the observers simply became more confident in their judgments as the duration lengthened.
(b)Teachers don’t Teach
We usually need lot of time to judge the teaching ability of a teacher. The ability of a teacher depends on many factors like his knowledge, communicative skill, gestures, personality, commitment, punctuality, discipline etc. We, therefore, need at least a few months to judge a teacher. In one of the researches conducted by Nalini Ambady and Robert Rosenthal , the psychologists gave the students just three of a ten second videotape of a teacher with sound off. The students found no difficulty in judging the effectiveness of the teacher. When the time was reduced to five seconds and then to only two seconds, still it was found that the judgment of the students by just watching the two-second video-clip was almost as accurate as the judgment made by the students who had studied for the full semester.
(c) Predicting Divorce
The relationship between the couple is quite a dynamic phenomenon. It goes through its ups and downs. It is very difficult to predict whether or not a marriage would survive. There are so many variables like their background, educational qualification, looks, nature of the spouse, adjustability, and respect for each other and so on. Clearly, if one wants to even guess the future of a marriage, he must know the partners very well individually and then together. It may take months of analysis to know if the couples are compatible to each other or not. It is for this reason that many couples date for years and even live-in for many years to see whether or not they are made for each other. They get married only when they are sure that the marriage will survive. Yet incidents of divorce are on the rise.
However, in the experiments conducted by the psychologist, John Gottman  in his lab, it was possible to predict whether or not a marriage would survive for another 15 years with 95% accuracy by watching the conversation of the couple for one hour on ANY SUBJECT. If he watched the tape only for 15 minutes, he could make prediction with 90% accuracy. Even by watching the tape for merely 3 minutes, he could accurately predict the future of a marriage.
(d) The Room with a Clue
The personality of a person is the most complex thing to measure by the reasoning process and logical deductions. It is in fact the sum total of the person’s attributes. It has various components like sociability, cooperation, conscientiousness, emotional stability and creativity. If you are asked to judge even your best friend whom you have known for many years, you may find it difficult to judge on these parameters. If someone asks you to judge a person on these parameters without even meeting the person, you may simply think it impossible.
However, in an experiment conducted by Morris , it was decided to judge the personality of eighty students on these five traits not by their interview but by observing their dorm rooms. He first called the close friends of the students and they were asked to rate the students on these five attributes. Thereafter, he called a few total strangers who had never met these students. The strangers were asked to see their dorm rooms and given fifteen minutes to give their assessment of these five attributes based on their observation of the room and their own intuition. The study revealed that the strangers were able to predict the five important traits of the personalities the students better than their friends, simply by observing their bedrooms.
The Scientists’ View on Snap Judgments
Snap judgment is a complete mystery to the scientists and psychologists as it defies logic and reasoning. How can a person make such an accurate judgment based on simple observation of body or its actions within a fraction of a moment without any data or information. “Why does the brain make such snap judgments is not yet entirely clear”. Todorov, who conducted the study of face analysis in Princeton University admits:
“What aspects of a face inspire such judgments remain undetermined. We still don`t know the physical features of a face that lead to a particular trait inference," he said. "We know generally what makes a face attractive, such as its symmetry, the proportions of its parts and the like. But what is it about a face that makes you think its owner is an essentially competent person? That`s the subject of another study, one that needs to be done.”
The difficulties of the researchers are understandable since if the trustworthiness, likeability and competence were to be determined based on data and information, the process would take many months. The process can be well explained by the Aatmic Science principles which state that the soul and hence, the complete personality of the person can be identified by a person from the physical manifestation of the body viz. face.
The concept of snap judgment is further illustrated by Malcolm Gladwell  in his international bestseller book “Blink: The Power of Thinking without thinking”. The book demonstrates by help of many studies that the snap judgments, which come to our mind without thinking are no less accurate than those which are based on extensive studies and logical deductions. Some of these studies have been referred to above. The author introduces the book in the following words:
It`s a book about rapid cognition, about the kind of thinking that happens in a blink of an eye. When you meet someone for the first time, or walk into a house you are thinking of buying, or read the first few sentences of a book, your mind takes about two seconds to jump to a series of conclusions. Well, "Blink" is a book about those two seconds, because I think those instant conclusions that we reach are really powerful and really important and, occasionally, really good.
However, neither the studies referred to by the author nor the book explains how a person makes snap judgments, which in the book is often referred to as “thin slicing” as discussed in the forthcoming paragraphs. He uses many terms like second mind or closed door (of mind) to explain the phenomenon of thin slicing but ultimately makes it even more mysterious and complex. As a matter of fact, Gladwell after revealing the mystery of “thin slicing” in the first few chapters, becomes apologetic for snap judgments and advises readers not to rely on the first impression in certain cases. However, it is not understood by the reader as to when he should trust the snap judgments and when not, as the author fails to explain how the magic of the first impression works.
The book actually fails to prove anything as it confuses the reader about the concept of thin-slicing. The Guardian Unlimited, in the review of the book, states:
“Snap judgments are sneered at, but should we put more trust in them?….But the big flaw in Blink is that there is no developed argument, only a succession of more-or-less, often less, interesting anecdotes. The reader is left uncertain whether rapid judgments should necessarily assume priority over measured ones.”
The fact of the matter is that science that exclusively relies on the material world can’t explain the phenomenon of the first impression. It is only when we consider the soul as the cause and the effect of the creation of matter, we can understand the truths which appear as a mystery to science. One need not be a believer to understand soul as it can be scientifically understood using the logic and reasoning bestowed to every human being in this universe. All we need is an open mind and application of our commonsense.
The Importance of Signatures
In the olden days, most of the legal documents used to bear the thumb impression of a person as a mark of authentication. It was due to the fact that the thumb impression of each person is different from others. Even today, thumb impression is the most reliable source for identification of a person, which is used extensively by the intelligence agencies for identifying a person and for forensic investigations to identify a criminal. With scientific growth scientists noted that it was possible to uniquely identify a person not only from his thumb impression but also from a cell (DNA) of any part of the body like hair, semen, tissue, blood, swab, saliva, spit or even nails. This process is called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, DNA typing, or DNA profiling . As a matter of fact, the DNA testing is often so advanced that it not only identifies the person but is also capable of identifying his parents with 99.99% accuracy .
Thus almost every single cell of each person is different from those of any other person of the world. However, in most of our day-to-day work, we do not go for the DNA tests of fingerprinting as we have found that almost all the physical manifestationss of a person like handwriting, voice, walking style, body structure and shape, are as unique as the face of the person. In the written communications and documents, we rely on one such manifestation of the person i.e. his handwritten signature.
Signature is often defined as a handwritten depiction of someone`s name (or some other identifying mark) that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and will . The handwritten signature is used as the most important tool for identification of a person in financial transactions and other matters. However, signature does not need to be handwritten, particularly in the digital era.
A wider definition of signature includes 
- One`s name as written by oneself.
- The act of signing one`s name.
- A distinctive mark, characteristic or sound indicating identity.
The signature of a person is thus an act of identifying a person from one of his external manifestations, i.e. handwritten word. Handwriting is a human skill whereby a person generates character shapes with a writing instrument as a visual representation of language .
It is quite interesting to note that almost all of us learn the language from similar types of books that depict identical alphabets. However, when we learn and copy those alphabets in our handwriting, they become slightly different for each person. The difference is not too much since we all can understand the handwriting of another person but still so different that we can distinguish the handwriting of one person from that of another person.
Since the handwritten words are produced manually by hands, no person can produce identical words in his life. Therefore, when put under the microscope each signature of the same person will be different. Still there is something in the signature, which continues to remain the same in all the diverse signatures made at different times of age, mood and physiological conditions and which no machine can identify without human intervention. It is this quality of the signature that does not change significantly with time and we can call it the essence or soul of signature.
Transmutation of Signal
We hardly realize that the world we see, hear and feel is not without transmutation of the signal carrying the information of the entity. When the signal travels from one source to another, it changes from one form to another several times before we receive it. However, the transmutation is so natural that we hardly realize it happening.
In order to understand as to how the transmutation of the information of any material or non-material entity takes place, we must understand the working of fax and modem. The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator. A modem is typically used to send digital data over a phone line .
The sending modem modulates the data into a (voice) signal that is compatible with the phone line, and the receiving modem demodulates the (voice) signal back into digital data. The working of a modem can be explained in the following diagram:
Functioning of a Modem
A fax machine is essentially an image scanner, a modem, and a computer printer combined into a highly specialized package. The scanner converts the content of a physical document into a digital image, the modem sends the image data over a phone line, and the printer at the other end makes a duplicate of the original document .
Therefore, when we send a document or image through fax, the image or letters (analogous signal) are first converted into digital signal by the scanner. These digital signals by the process of modulation are converted to voice signal and send to another modem by telephone lines. The other modem at the receiver’s end demodulates the signal and converts the voice signal back to the data signal. These data signals are then converted to analogues signal by the printer (document containing letters or image), which is then printed as the photocopies of the original document.
If the demodulation process is exactly the reverse of the modulation process, the receiver will get the exact image of the original document being transmitted by fax. However, man can’t understand the voice which is transmitting the digital signal. If you lift the receiver of the telephone when the signal is being transmitted, you only hear fax tone which consists of some peculiar noises that you can’t understand. Similarly, the digital machines (like computers and printers) cannot understand the analogous signals like pictures. The digital machine, therefore, converts each information into bits of binary signal that can be understood by computers.
In the same way, when we see a material entity, a process similar to modem takes place. For example, when you see a building with your eyes effortlessly, you are actually unaware of the complex process that is going on behind the scene. In reality, when the light falls on the building, it gets modified (modulated) as some of the frequencies of the electromagnetic waves (light) are absorbed while others are reflected or emitted by the building. The light waves traveling from the building to the man (eyes) carry the information about the building. These light waves are sensed by the retina of the eyes, which produces an image of the building. This image is than deciphered by the human mind through the retina of the eyes (demodulation) to see the object. If our eyes are not sensitive to a wavelength emitted by the object, we would not be able to see the object.
Measurement of Physical entities
Even the scientific instruments measure various measurable properties of the entities only by transmutation of signal. Let us take the example of gravity. We know that all material objects attract each other and exert a force of attraction. This force is called the gravity. The forces of gravitation are exerted on every single object. Yet no one has ever been able to see the gravity or gravitational field. Then how do we know if gravity is present? The only method of knowing whether the gravitational field is present around us or not is by measuring the force exerted on a unit mass (F=mg, where F is the force, m is the mass and g is the gravity). So if you hang a mass on a spring, and the spring is stretched (or contracted) we can measure the force. Thereafter, if you divide the force by the mass, you know the quantum and direction of the gravity. Thus what we are measuring is not gravity but the force on the mass and then calculating the value of gravity from the force it exerts on a unit mass. Similarly, if one has to measure the electric field or magnetic field, he has to measure the force on the electrically charged objects and magnets respectively. The presence of electricity is often measured by the movement of the needle in the Ampere meter, or the movement of a fan, or the lighting of a bulb. Thus the measurement of even the material entity actually involves the measurement of imperceptible entity. No physicist can ever claim to have seen or measured the fields of gravity, electricity or magnetism, which are present all around us.
Basic Principles of the Aatmic Science
The relationship between the soul and the material or perceptible objects is best expressed in the Gita where Lord Krishna states:
“Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Sky (Ether), Mind, Reason and Ego- thus eightfold are My Nature. This is My lower aspect; but know thou My other aspect, the higher – which is jiva (Atman) by which this world is sustained. Know that these two compose the source from which all beings spring; I am the origin and the end of the entire Universe. (Gita VI,1, 4, 5)”
Here the Earth, Water, Air, Fire and Sky represent the five states of matter i.e. solid, liquid, gas, plasma (which is the state of fire) and light (energy or electromagnetic waves which fills the sky). It also consists of three realities viz. mind, reason and ego which are not measurable but perceptible only to the individual. However, the ‘intelligence’ behind all these realities is the ‘Soul’. All the eight realities are simultaneously originated from the same source. Thus these eight realities are the mirror images or impressions of the soul in the material world. In other words, we can say that these eight realities are the ‘signatures of the soul’. The first five are the material components which make the body while the other three are the imperceptible realities which make the mind. For details regarding the creation of the universe and life, please read the article Creation of Universe and Life: The Aatmic Science Theory.
The Gita (III, 27) further states:
“All Action is entirely done by the nature of the soul (of man). Man deluded by his ego thinks, “I am the doer”.
If the actions of man are done automatically by the nature of the soul, it is logical to believe that his behaviour and habits must reflect the nature of the soul. Thus the behaviour of the person is also the signature of the soul.
Measurement of the imperceptible soul
Similar to the measurement of material entities, we can explain the measurement of imperceptible realities. It is because every material entity is a refection of a non-material reality and vice-versa. For example, mass (perceptible) creates gravity (imperceptible), which creates force (perceptible). Therefore, the communication between the souls of two different individuals also takes place similar to that of the material world by transmutation of signals.
When you see another person, you are essentially seeing the material reflection of his soul in the material world i.e. body. Thus when your eyes see the image of the person just like the camera sees the image of the person, the matter does not end there. The material image of the body (perceptible) is observed by the mind, which is then again transmuted by the soul of the observer into the soul of the observed. Thus the soul of the observer does not see the body of the person (as done by the mind of the person) but see the soul of the person.
Since body and mind are manifestations of the soul, a person is able to understand the mind of another person from his knowledge of the soul in addition to the image of the body. However, just like we can’t understand the digital message by listening to the fax tone, the mind cannot understand the hidden message of these (visible) signatures of the soul i.e. the body or face or gesture of the person. As the mind itself is a material manifestation of the soul, it cannot understand as to how the information is understood and processed by the soul. Thus we (our mind) can’t explain logically as to how we understand the mind of another person merely by observing some of his signatures.
The Mystery of Understanding
During my undergraduate years, I started learning guitar. The teacher first asked me to thoroughly practise the nodes of the guitar. Thereafter he gave me the nodes of some songs to practise. I just remembered the nodes by heart and practised a couple of songs. After about a fortnight or so, one day I just tried to play a new tune. I found to my surprise that my fingers could move to identify almost the exact nodes and I could play the song all by myself without knowing the nodes. Gradually, with some practice, I could play any song on my guitar, even though I was not looking at the guitar and thinking of something else. Now, if anyone asks me as to how I know which is the right node, I have no answer as the process is automatic.
We have a similar experience with almost all learnt things of life. When we learn mathematics, we are taught first by the teachers the basic principles or concepts. Then we are asked to solve some problems. After solving some problems we unconsciously understand the technique. Thereafter, when someone asks you to solve a totally new problem even after years, the ‘right’ method pops up in your mind and you are able to solve the problem. If you are asked to explain as to how only that method popped up, you can’t know it because your mind does not know it. Scientists call this knowledge as ‘intrinsic knowledge’ that can’t be explained in words.
Due to this process of learning the soul, which is the intelligence of the body, is constantly modified. When a child is born, he is all innocent as he has not yet learnt anything. However as he grows up, he learns many things in life, which result in continuous modification of his soul. Since body is the reflection of the soul, the same changes are visible on the body and all its manifestations, which we can call the signatures of the body.
Soul is an entity that is subjected to change throughout the life. As a matter of fact, soul is the intelligence of the body, which is changing continuously throughout the life. The Gita also states that the soul has three basic natures which can be changed by man through effort. Thus when the soul of one man interprets the soul of another, the message interpretation is not accurate as the process of demodulation is not exactly the reverse of the process of modulation. Hence, interpretations are subject to bias and prejudices due to the learnt behaviour of the man.
However, according to the Aatmic Science principles, the physical body, mind and reasoning of man are the material manifestations of the soul. The principle also suggests that all the actions of man are done automatically by the nature of the soul. Thus one can identify the soul of anther person from either the body or its actions and thereby identify his mind.
Types of Human Signature
The three important signatures of the soul are the face, body and behaviour of man. Thus we can explain the identification of the mind of a person from any of these three signatures of the soul.
It has been wisely said that the face is the mirror of heart. In the civilized world most of the human body is covered with cloths except the face. when we see a person, we are effectively seeing not the complete person but only his face that is a part of his body. Thus we understand the face better than any other part of the human body. We are thus so experienced in learning the face that we can understand the complete person (by understanding the soul) within a fraction of a second. This fact is clearly established by the results of experiments conducted at the Princeton University.
The Aatmic Science believes that body is the physical manifestation of the soul. Therefore, the shape and weight of the body depends entirely on the nature of the soul. The Gita states that the soul of every person has three types of nature i.e. saattvik (Nature of Wisdom), raajsik (Nature of Passion or desire) and taamsik (Nature of Ignorance or darkness). Different combinations of these natures give a unique personality to each person. The Aatmic Science has developed a “Nature Test” which measures the three natures of a person that is used to predict his “Weight” and “Tendency of addition”. Results of the Nature Test have been found to be more than 90% accurate. This clearly establishes that the weight of a person does not depend on the calorie intake of the person but on the nature of his soul. Please read the complete article “How to Remain Fit and Free from Addiction” for detailed information.
According to the basic principles of the Aatmic Science, all actions of a man are automatically done by the nature of the soul, yet the man thinks that he is the doer of his actions. Thus all the habits, behaviour and personality of a man are due to the nature of the soul. While the face and body of a person are the permanent impressions of the soul, which largely remain unchanged within a short time, his actions largely explain the state of his mind even more clearly. Each person has a distinct style of walking, talking, facial expressions, postures, all of which reflect the different aspects of the soul. Thus by observing those aspects of human personality, it is possible to know the soul and hence, the mind of the person quite accurately.
Analogically, if we say that face and body are the “signatures of the soul”, then it would be apt to say that action of the face and body is the “handwriting of the soul”. Alternatively, we can say that if face and body are the image or picture of the soul, the action of the body is the moving picture or the video of the soul. Thus we can make much better understanding of the soul, when we see in addition to the impressions of the face and body, their movements also.
This explains how the students could make an accurate prediction about a teacher based on only a “two-second” clip, whom they had never met. This also explains why their prediction was as accurate as the judgments of the students who had spent their entire semester with the teacher. There can be no scientific explanation of this so-called mysterious phenomenon, which looks very simple when viewed from the perspective of the Aatmic Science. No amount of logical thinking or reasoning can explain this phenomenon unless we believe that the souls of the students grasped the signature of the soul of the teacher from its external manifestation (which is movement of the body in this case).
The “room with a clue” experiment clearly demonstrates that the signature of man is clearly visible in all his actions and behaviour. What the observers in this experiment have done is that they observed the physical manifestations of the behaviour of the students and they could identify the soul of each student. Since soul is the cause and the origin of the mind as per the Aatmic science theory, they could easily identify the mind and behaviour of the students with as much accuracy as the people who had known them for years. If you exclude the role of the soul from this assessment, no amount of logic and reasoning can justify the accuracy of the prediction. As a matter of fact, if the observers were to be asked as to how they arrived at the same conclusion, in all likelihood, they would have no logical answer as the guitar player des not know why he selects a particular node. These results of the experiments were quite surprising for psychologists as they tried to find justification as to how the people could gather clues from the dorm rooms, without considering the role of the soul.
The handwriting of the person says volumes about the personality of a person. There are numerous studies that have found a co-relation between the “type of person” and his handwriting. We all learn to write from the same textbooks, which have the same type of letters. Yet, when we copy those letters manually, we all write them differently. Scientists assign this difference in handwriting to the muscle structure of a person. However, as per the Aatmic Science theory, all actions including the act of writing are automatically done by the soul. Hence, the handwriting of a person carries the impression of the soul. It is possible, therefore, to predict the mind and personality of a person from a careful analysis of his handwriting. You can participate in the “Handwriting Personality Quiz: What does your handwriting say about YOU?” to see for yourself how accurately handwriting can predict your nature and personality.
Discussions and Conclusions
This article clearly illustrates that the mystery of snap judgments, thin-slicing or first impressions cannot be solved unless we understand the mystery of the soul which is the cause and origin of the material body. There can be no logical explanation as to how the mind can understand a person by simply looking at his photograph for merely one-tenth of a second. It is explained in the Upanishads that mind cannot understand the soul since mind itself is the creation of the soul. Therefore, the fact remains that mind knows a person from his photograph without knowing why it is so. On being further probing, he may give some reason for his judgment but that will not be valid logically, being simply in the form of a guess. People are well aware of the soul, though they find it impossible to comprehend it and hence, they have given it various names like sub-consciousness, the sixth sense, consciousness or intuition.
However, the mystery of snap judgment is solved once we consider that soul is the cause of creation of the material body, mind and reasoning as stated in the Gita. This will explain that in effect all the actions of the body and mind are due to the soul. Thus when we perceive something, it is actually a perception of the soul, which is known to us through the mind. It is for this reason that the same thing may be perceived differently by different people. The meat of one person is the poison for another. This article also explains the interchangeability of the material and non-material entities and transmutation of the signal from the perceptible to the imperceptible by giving the example of fax transmission. Thus the Aatmic Science theory explains the mystery of snap judgment by integrating the knowledge of science and the soul.
(1) “Snap judgments decide a face`s character, psychologist finds” News@Princeton URL; http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S15/62/69K40/index.xml?section=topstories August 22, 2006
(2) Nalini Ambady and Robert Rosenthal. "Half a Minute: Predicting Teacher Evaluations from Thin Slices of Nonverbal Behavior and Physical Attractiveness." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1993, Vol. 64. No. 3. 431-441.
(3) Sybil Carrere and John Gottman. "Predicting Divorce among Newlyweds from the First Three Minutes of a Marital Conflict Discussion." Family Process. 1999. Vol. 38. No. 3. 293-301. URL; http://www.familyprocess.org/
(4) Samuel D. Gosling, Sei Jin Ko, et al. "A Room With a Cue: Personality Judgments Based on Offices and Bedrooms." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2002. Vol. 82. No. 3. 379-398.
(5) Malcolm Gladwell “Blink: The Power of Thinking without thinking” Back Bay Books (2005)
(6) - Stephen Bayley (2005), “Be a blinking marvel” Guardian Unlimited URL: http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/scienceandnature/0,,1406660,00.html
(7) Wikipedia “DNA testing” URL; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dna_testing
(8) Genelex Corporation “How Accurate is Paternity DNA Testing?” URL; http://www.genelex.com/paternitytesting/paternitygood.html
(9) Wikipedia, “Signature”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signature
(10) “Signature” Answeres.com URL; http://www.answers.com/signature
(11) “Handwriting Comparisons” Documentary evidences URL: http://www.docev.co.uk/areas_handwriting.html
(12) How Modem Work, How Stuff works URL; http://computer.howstuffworks.com/modem1.htm
(13) “Fax”, Wikepedia, URL; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fax
(14) Handwriting Personality Quiz “ What does your handwriting say about YOU?” URL: http://handwriting.feedbucket.com/
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