Man was always curious to know how the universe was created. He always wanted to know what came first. Egg or Chicken? The more knowledge the man gathered the more he searched. The “Rig Veda” are the oldest text in the world which was written around 3000-4000 years before the birth of Christ. At this stage the knowledge of the man was very limited and he used to wonder how the sun rises? How the weather changes? How it rains? How crops grow? They had no answer for these questions. Therefore, they worshipped these forces of nature as god and called tem “deva” (the giver). They believed that gods were similar to human being albeit far more powerful. They, therefore, worshipped the nature as God. They worshiped sun, moon, river, weather, tree, air, water, thunder light, rain etc as god since they were the giver of the things which were needed by the human beings. In order to please these gods they followed the same methods as they would do to please a powerful person or king. They worshipped them, preyed them, performed many rituals, sacrificed animal lives (sometimes even human lives) and even provided them with alcohol, and intoxicants like marijuana so that gods can be pleased. In Hindu religions there are believed to be more than 340 million gods (practically one for event one).
However, as the knowledge grew and human being became more evolved, they started to realize that all these powers of natures are not independent to each other but parts of a “Supreme Being” which they called “God”. However, they continued to believe God as omnipotent and omnipresent Human beings who think like human beings and even look like human being.
“Genesis” of Universe
The first book which dealt with the creation of universe was Genesis (meaning “creation”, “birth” “origin”, or “beginning”). Genesis is the first book of Hebrew Bible (Old Test amount) and the Christain Old Testament. As per Genesis, God created light on the first day, the firement of heaven on the second day. He separated the water and land on the third day. On the fourth day God created the sun, moon and stars. The marine life and birds were created on the fifth day. Finally on the sixth day God created land animals, man and woman. On the seventh day viz. the Sabbath day; God rested. Genesis states that the first human being created was “Adam” out of earth and he was send to the Garden of Eden to watch over it. Subsequently God created woman (Eve) from the rib of the Adam to be his companion.
God after Creation of Universe
Genesis believes that God is Anthropomorphic (human like) and he may speak to man. He created the entire universe by His word. It believes that human being is the crown of His Creation and he has been made in the image of God. God is thus outside the Universe and beyond it.
The Scientific Investigation of Creation
The creation of universe by Genesis was an accepted principle for many thousand years by Jews, Christian and Islam. Most of the believers still believe in the creation of the universe by Genesis.
The scientist refused to accept the Genesis theory of creation due to lack of scientific basis. Further, it was proven that Earth is not the center of universe but only a small planet in the vast universe. Even Sun which appears to be small from earth is thousands of times bigger than earth. The size of the universe was estimated to be in billions of light years.
Initially the classical physics of Newton was used to explain the existence of universe by the help of universal gravitation force between the stars and planets which is balanced by the centripetal force of the revolving planets. Yet the explanation was not sufficient to explain the existence of planets and stars in the solar systems and galaxies as no center of universe could be found. It was argued that if the gravitational force is universally applicable than the universe must be shrinking due to the attraction of the stars and finally collapse. Even Einstein predicted the universe to be static and unchanging. However with the development of Hubble Telescope by Edwin Hubble, the entire theory of creation of universe changed.
The Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang is the most accepted scientific theory of the creation of universe today. It states that the universe emerged from the extremely hot and dense state about 13.7 billion years ago. The theory is based on the observation that the wavelength of the distant stars shift towards red in proportion to their distance from the earth. On the basis of the red shift it was predicted that the universe has expanded from a state in which all the matters and energy was at immense temperature and density.
The Big Bang Creation of Universe
The big bang theory states that early universe was filled up with incredible high density and huge temperature and pressures. When it expanded, the temperatures cooled down. The first stage which came was the plasma age when the basic particles like quark, electron, protons, neutrons etc formed. These basics particles then combined to form atoms and molecules. Thus first the gaseous state came into existence. The temperature further dropped and the formation of more complex and heavy atoms and molecules took place and the liquid and gaseous state emerged. Thereafter, the matters got combined and made the stars and planets. The universe is believed to be expanding almost at the speed of light and the size of the universe is also estimated to be almost as big as could be i.e. almost 13 billion light years.
The Questions which Bag Bang Theory Fail to Answer
Even though Big Bang is the most accepted scientific theory for the creation of universe yet it has failed to answer many questions which make the Big Bang theory highly controversial. Some of the questions which are yet to be answered are
- What Existed before Big Bang?: Big Bang theory fails to explain what happened before Big Bang? How the matter and energy got confined to a small space? What caused Big Bang?
- Why there is little Anti-mater?: Modern scientist believe that for every matter (like electron) there is an anti-matter (like positron) which have equal mass but have opposite characteristics like charge. The matter and anti-matter totally annihilate each other and get converted to energy. Similarly the energy can be converted to a matter only when simultaneously equal mass of antimatter is created. Yet the scientists have found little trace of anti-matter.
- How the Cooling of Energy Took Place?: One important hypothesis of Big Bang is that the universe was created from energy which subsequently cooled off due to expansion and the formation of matter took place. The theory appears to be based on the analogy of the gaseous matter which cools due to expansion. However the electromagnetic waves do not have any mass and it can travel in space without and loss of temperature since the electromagnetic waves have no temperature at all. The temperature is the property of matter only while the waves have the property of wavelength and frequency. Thus the cooling off hypothesis is without any basis.
- What is Dark Energy? In 1990s the detailed measurement of mass density of universe revealed that about 70% of the energy density of the universe can’t be accounted for. It is further proven now the expansion of the universe is not linear as predicted by Hubble but it is accelerating for distant stars. This suggested that here is dark energy which is responsible for pushing away the stars at larger acceleration. The latest finding of 2006 indicates that the universe have 74% dark energy for which no scientific explanation is available.
- What is Dark Matter?: Scientists have discovered that there is not sufficient visible matter in the universe to account for the apparent strength of the gravitational forces within and between galaxies. This led to the idea that 90% of the matter in the universe is not normal but dark matter. Yet no particle which could constitute dark mater has been discovered so far by the scientists.
- What is the Future of Universe?: The Big bang theory also fails to explain the future of universe. As per one theory when the mass density of universe would become equal to or more than “the critical density” then the universe would reach to its maximum size and it would start collapsing. It would become denser and hotter again ending with the state in which it started. However some scientists believe that the expansion of the universe would slow down but never stop. The average temperature of the universe would reduce to absolute zero (273 degrees below the 0 degree centigrade) leading to big freeze. The entropy of the universe would reach to its maximum so that no energy can be extracted from it, a scenario known as heat death. Some scientists believe that ultimately all the matter of the universe would decay and only radiation will be left in the universe.
The major problem of Big Bang theory is that it fails to support the main hypothesis with any experiment. It deals exclusively with matter and it fails to explain how the life originated in the universe particularly the earth. Thus the theory leaves more questions be answered than it attempts to answer by the theory. As the scientists are developing better capability to investigate the events of the universe, they are encountered with more and more facts which big bang theory fails to explain.
Gita has provided a unique theory of the creation of universe more than a thousand year before the birth of Christ. Albert Einstein, the greatest scientists of all times commented reading this theory of Gita.
“When I read the Bhagvat Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous.”
Gita provides a simple but logical explanation for the creation of the universe. However, these principles of Gita have never been studied and proven by scientific studies. Gita explains the creation of matter (universe) and life in most scientific manner. It can be established that only Gita can explain the true origin of universe and life. The scientists have erred in treating the matter and the life as two different entities. They have Big Bang theory to explain the creation of material world while Darwin’s Evolution theory (best know as the theory of the survival of the fittest) to explain the origin of species and life.